List of Microorganisms
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Steve Dickson

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Effective Microorganisms

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List of Microbes
Types of Microorganisms

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MicroorganismsMicroorganisms - Information on the top microbe related searches. Covering bacteria, effective and harmful microbes as well as microbe pictures, details of microorganisms in water and the living soil and more.

This is a list of microorganisms including more details of fungi, protozoa, algae, bacteria, archaebacteria and viruses with links to other reference sites with their list of microorganisms.

List of microorganisms

Fungi are a large and diverse group of eukaryotic, non-photosynthetic, spore-forming organisms. They have rigid cell walls. Respiration takes place in bodies called mitochondria in the cytoplasm. Fungal cells have an elaborate arrangement of internal membranes. Fungi can be divided into two broad groups: filamentous fungi (including moulds and macrofungi) and yeasts. List of microorganisms contd.

Protozoa are a large group of eukaryotic, single celled organisms, which lack a rigid cell wall and usually chloroplasts. They vary widely in size, cell structure and form, ranging from Amoeba with its very fluid shape and simple internal organization and few specialised organelles through to Paramecium with its fixed shape, complex internal organisation and many specialised organelles. List of microorganisms contd.

Algae are a diverse group of eukaryotic organisms that contain chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis. Some contain other photosynthetic pigments which gives them their characteristic colour - most algae are green, but some are red. They occur in a wide range of forms from microscopic to macroscopic e.g. seaweeds, some of which are up to 30 metres long and are not considered to be micro-organisms. Microscopic algae exist either as single cells e.g. diatoms, in colonies e.g. Volvox or in filaments e.g. Spirogyra. List of microorganisms contd.

Bacteria are single-celled microbes that reproduce by splitting in two. Each individual cell is capable of carrying out all of the activities needed to metabolise and reproduce. Bacteria grow best in moist conditions and can live in a wide range of temperatures. List of microorganisms contd. They cannot grow at low pH (i.e. in acid conditions). In the right conditions of warmth, acidity and moisture they can multiply very fast indeed, producing millions of cells in a few hours. Some bacteria form spores which are resistant to drying and heating. When conditions become favourable again to growth, they germinate and an active vegetative cell is released. List of microorganisms contd. There are more than 5,000 known species of bacteria, with new ones constantly being discovered. Each cell is bounded by a wall which maintains the shape of the bacterium and gives it protection. List of microorganisms contd. Bacteria have four basic shapes: spheres, rods, spirals and commas. They can be found as single cells, in pairs, chains or clusters. Some bacteria can move. Usually this is by the action of corkscrew-like appendages called flagella, which rotate from the base like a ship's propeller. The flagella may be distributed randomly over the whole cell surface, in groups or singly. Some bacteria have numerous fringe-like projections called fimbriae which enable them to stick to each other. Other bacteria produce a sticky substance around the cell wall. This provides protection and helps them to stick to substrates, as well as each other. List of microorganisms contd.

Archaebacteria have a wide range of shapes: spheres, rods, spirals, lobed, flat rectangular or irregular. Some exist as single cells, other form filaments or clusters. Some are motile. They are often called extremophiles because they are found in extreme conditions in the environment, such as in hot springs, or the depths of the ocean. List of microorganisms contd. Included in this group are anaerobic methanogens, which produce methane, halophiles living in salty conditions and thermophiles which can live at high temperatures. Archaebacteria reproduce by either splitting in two (binary fission), budding or fragmentation. List of microorganisms contd.

Bacteriophage p 22

Viruses are different from other microbes. They are very small. They have no cellular structure and are obligate intracellular parasites. They can only multiply inside the living cells of animals or plants or other microbes. This process harms the host, resulting in a disease. Outside of the host they are inert particles called virions. List of microorganisms contd. A basic viral particle consists of a core of nucleic acid, which can either be single or double stranded DNA or RNA but not both. A protein coat called a capsid surrounds the nucleic acid and is made of building blocks called capsomers. Some viruses have an envelope around the capsid. There are three virus shapes: polyhedral, rod and complex. List of microorganisms contd.

Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. They are used in gene technology to transfer foreign DNA that has been spliced into their nucleic acid into bacterial cells. The bacteria then acquire the ability to carry out the function of that particular gene and make specific proteins. List of microorganisms contd.

Prions - Mad cow disease (BSE) and the similar human new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob-Disease (nvCJD) are fatal diseases in which the brain tissue breaks down. It is believed that rogue proteins called prions are to blame. These are not microbes in the usual sense because they are not alive, but the illness they cause can be transmitted from one animal to another. List of microorganisms contd.

The most relevant links we could find, placed here free

Microbiology online - Different micro-organisms.

Microbiology Bytes - Man and Microbes.

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